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Standard measure of the biological activity (biological effect) of manufactured medicinal drugs and vitamins.
For every substance to which this unit is assigned, there is an internationally accepted biological effect expected with a dose of 1 IU.
Other quantities of the standard preparation of the substance are expressed in multiples of this dose and may be converted into mass units.
For example, 1IU is equivalent to 45.5 microgram (0.0455 milligram) of insulin, 0.6 microgram (0.0006 milligram) of penicillin, 0.3 microgram (0.0003 milligram) of vitamin-A, 50 micrograms (0.050 milligram) of vitamin-C, or 25 nanograms (0.000025 milligram) of vitamin-D.
This article was published in Analytical Biochemistry, Vol 270, pp 75-82, 1999.
Article ID abio.1999.4057 Copyright © 1999 by Academic Publishers.
Published version of the article is available online A simple, sensitive, rapid (3 min), and highly reproducible solid-phase assay for the detection of proteins in the low nanogram range (4 ng) is described.
The assay is based on differential Pon-ceau S staining of the protein spots on nitrocellulose and quantification of the protein- dye com-plexes on lubricated membranes using a densitometer.
Proteins were directly spotted onto pre- Ponceau S-stained nitrocellulose membranes, crosslinked with glutaraldehyde, rinsed in Na OH, restained with Ponceau S, and finished by rinsing in acid water at p H 3.Dry membranes were lubricated with mineral oil to achieve brightness of the colored spots before scanning with a densitometer at 560 nrn.The assay shows tolerance to extreme acidic and ba-sic buffer conditions and no significant protein-to-protein variations were observed.The effects of detergent contaminants and various other reagents such as polyethylene glycol, mercap-toethanol, and urea were also tested in the assay.The nonionic detergent, digitonin, and the anionic detergent, sodium dodecyl sulfate, up to l%, and Triton X-100 up to 0.25% do not inter-fere with the assay.
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Efficacy of the assay was tested for five different proteins and the sensitivity was compared with the most widely used method of Bradford's.