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He was later given the name "Peter", New Testament Greek Πέτρος (Petros) derived from πέτρα (petra), which means rock.
In the Latin translation of the Bible this became Petrus, a masculine form of the feminine petra (f), which is a loanword from Greek still meaning "rock." Another version of this name is Aramaic: (Šimʻōn Kêpâ Sëmʻān Kêpâ), after his name in Hellenised Aramaic.
("Pierre" is also an ordinary French noun meaning "stone".) The Syriac or Aramaic word for "rock" is kepa, which in Greek became Greek: Catholic theologian Rudolf Pesch argues that the Aramaic cepha means "stone, ball, clump, clew" and that "rock" is only a connotation; that in the Attic Greek petra denotes "grown rock, rocky range, cliff, grotto"; and that petros means "small stone, firestone, sling stone, moving boulder".
Peter's life story is told in the four canonical gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, New Testament letters, the non-canonical Gospel of the Hebrews and other Early Church accounts of his life and death.
Peter's Basilica, where Pope Paul VI announced in 1968 the excavated discovery of a first-century Roman cemetery.
The Gospel of Mark was traditionally thought to show the influence of Peter's preaching and eyewitness memories.
Several other books bearing his name – the Acts of Peter, Gospel of Peter, Preaching of Peter, Apocalypse of Peter, and Judgment of Peter – are considered by Christian churches as apocryphal, and are thus not included in the canon of the Bible.
Peter's original name was "Shimon" or "Simeon" ("Simon" in modern English).
Main feast (with Paul the Apostle) 29 June (Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, Anglicanism, Lutheranism) Chair of St Peter in Rome 18 January (Pre-1960 Roman Calendar) Confession of St Peter 18 January (Anglicanism) Chair of St Peter 22 February (Catholic Church) St Peter in Chains 1 August (pre-1960 Roman Calendar)), also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simōn, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Church.
He is also the "Apostle of the Apostles", an honor 3rd-century theologian Hippolytus of Rome gave him, and the Roman Catholic Church considers him to be the first pope, ordained by Jesus in the "Rock of My Church" dialogue in Matthew .
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The ancient Christian churches all venerate Peter as a major saint and associate him with founding the Church of Antioch and later the Church in Rome, and was from the village of Bethsaida in the province of Galilee or Gaulanitis. According to New Testament accounts, Peter was one of twelve apostles chosen by Jesus from his first disciples.